Gender Gap in IT

28 Jul

IT is dead, long live the geek

Contrary to what one might expect after listening about all the news on the downturn in IT, and worries about outsourcing, IT is still a very robust and very well paid field. Median annual earnings of computer systems analysts were $62,890 in 2002. Bureau of Labor Statistics states,

“Computer systems analysts, database administrators, and computer scientists are expected to be among the fastest growing occupations through 2012. Employment of these computer specialists is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations as organizations continue to adopt and integrate increasingly sophisticated technologies. Job increases will be driven by very rapid growth in computer system design and related services, which is projected to be one of the fastest-growing industries in the U.S. economy. In addition, many job openings will arise annually from the need to replace workers who move into managerial positions or other occupations or who leave the labor force.”

IT is an extremely important cog of the American economy. Nearly all the increase in productivity over the past 15 years can be attributed to IT. IT will remain at the forefront of innovation and increase in productivity for years to come and with the convergence of IT and entertainment – the sector is poised for another spurt of growth.

Why do we need women in IT?

Recently, Microsoft chief, Bill Gates, lamented the lack of women working in technology and computer engineering. It is widely recognized that the skills of men and women need to be equally tapped in order to be successful in the global economy. We simply need more people to work in IT. One of the key drivers of outsourcing has been the relatively small talent pool in CS in the US. Some people are dismissive of the need for women in hard sciences like physics and computer science, but if the precedent in biological sciences is anything to go by where women play an increasingly important role – the computer industry is missing out on the talents of half of the population.

On the other end, the industry also needs women as consumers of technology. If gaming industry is anything to go by, it appears that technology companies may be at the risk of alienating half of the world’s population, an inexcusably moronic business decision.

IT companies and women

IBM Corp., one of the largest IT service companies in the world, is rated as the 10th best company in the country for women executives by National Association for Female Executives. HP, another computer giant, features among top 10 also. While both cases can be seen as a sign that technology companies are providing decent opportunities to women to climb up the ladder, the examples are not representative of conditions faced by most female IT employees. Most IT professionals work at either small IT firms, or in IT divisions of non-IT firms, where traditional attitudes continue to dominate. In addition, gender-blind structures post hiring shouldn’t be mistaken for gender-blind hiring structures.

Why IT market is so tough for women?
It is necessary to provide continuous training for upgrading skills. Women who have been out of the labor force for some time (due to pregnancy) find their skills obsolete. The counter point is that IT jobs can be done while telecommuting.

Outright discrimination against women

Discrimination in Academic Workplace:
A study commissioned by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in 2001 tried to analyze the career trajectories of women with PhD in science. The study, using data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients, evaluated differences in employment outcomes for academic scientists by gender. It found that women were less likely to be promoted to tenure.

Why is it hard for women to pursue CS in colleges

Some of the engineering/CS classes are genuinely hard where there is a need for a “buddy system”- collaborating on assignments etc. With few women in CS classes, women feel reluctant to join CS classes. We need a critical mass of women in CS classes to really see a quantum jump in enrollment. A recent paper by Murphy and Steele, analyzing data from MSE classes at Stanford, found that Stereotype threat is more salient for women when the gender imbalance is more extreme.

Here’s are results from a survey:

A recent survey done by the Gallup Organization in conjunction with CNN, USA Today, and the National Science Foundation included 744 children in grades 7 through 12. “Telephone Interviews were conducted from March 20-27, 1997 from Gallup interviewing centers throughout the country. The focus of the survey was on students’ familiarity with and use of modern technology with special attention given to use of computers and the Internet.” (Gallup 1997) Some things that they found were that “American teenagers are very interested in and reliant on modern technology.” The paper gives a lot of information about findings regarding students usage of computers and other household technologies. The somewhat surprising facts to us came with the findings on comparisons of boys and girls. The similarities between boys and girls were staggering. “Boys and girls express nearly identical levels of confidence in using computer, with average scores (on a zero to 10 point scale) of 6.8 and 6.7 respectively. … One-third of both boys and girls feel their computer/technology education is on track…”(Gallup 1997).

Unfortunately, these numbers signifying gender equality do not represent the trends seen in boys and girls entering fields in computer science. According to Cynthia Lanius, author of an article, Getting Girls Interested in Computer Science, these results are encouraging because “increasing girls’ computer use may be necessary to increase girls’ interest in computer science”. However, she also feels that this is not enough. “Computer science (which really should be called computing science) is the study of computation; computers are merely the tool performing the computation.” (Lanius) Her basic conjecture is that saying that girls are using computers or even are comfortable with computers just as much as boys means nothing to how it will effect the computer science field. The fact is the number of girls entering computer science is dropping and we would like to figure out why.

Bibliography:

NSF

BBC

Other Links:

Merchants of Art

26 May

“Shakespeare Wallah” was my introduction to the magic of Merchant Ivory Productions. An elegy to a lost era, a bitter-sweet tale of a traveling English theatre troupe in India right after the Indian independence, it is still vivid in my memory. The debonair Shashi Kapoor and Satyajit Ray’s beautiful score are the two other things that I remember from the film. Since then, I have seen many other Merchant Ivory productions. And their films have always left me simultaneously reassured and disturbed.

A constant in all their movies has been the excellent production values, largely a product of Mr. Merchant’s vision, and his acknowledged genius for creating beautiful, authentic sets on a shoestring budget. With the demise of Ismail, we no longer have a producer who fussed over each detail.

The troika of James Ivory, Ruth Prawer Jhabwala, and Ismail Merchant over the past four decades virtually invented a new genre of films. They showed that you don’t need to compromise on art to be successful. And to me, that is the legacy of Merchant Ivory.

I will forever be indebted to their patience, art, and virtue.

Further Reading:
BBC article on Ismail Merchant

Misspelt Universe

18 Apr

How many times have you typed something in Google to be asked “Did you mean: ….” Next time you reach this page, stay a little longer and take a look at the pages that Google did find. This is your gateway to the parallel universe of misspelled words. Well let me correct myself — these “misspelled” words can belong to a different language altogether or they even might be rarely used genuine English words with close resemblance to the heavily used ones.

An entire gamut of information is being denied to us due to mere errors in spelling. To deride these spelling mistakes as “mere errors in spelling” is to ignore a small minority of people who deliberately misspell words so as to make their pages less publicly accessible. This works as an effective low-tech solution for every underground society has demands obscurity.

Then there are people who exploit misspellings to make their living e.g. People searching auction sites like eBay for misspelled (or mislabeled) items, and hence hopefully underbid items. (* eBay now offers a spell-check utility but surprisingly few people still refuse to use it.)

Excepting eBay entrepreneurs, one thing that is clear is that we are “losing”‘ this increasingly vast pool of information containing misspelled “keywords” (words we type in a search engine). There is an argument to be made that the quality of information source with misspelled words may itself be poor and hence we needn’t worry about the “lost” information. Arguably, the frequency of misspelled words in a peer reviewed journal is much lower than say my blog. ;) The normative question is, Does that rightly consign my blog to obscurity?

Internet search is a classic case of finding needle in a haystack, and search algorithms are built of dispense with as much “clutter” (hay) as fast as possible, leaving a very small minority of websites that are given genuine value. What we are seeing are two trends implicit in Google’s search algorithm — most of our search needs are about “popular”‘ items (given a higher rank by Google), and it is progressively harder to find “unpopular” sources. On the face of it the trend is innocuous and even sensible but the wider ramifications include information hegemony.

Let us turn the discussion around to sites that use “syntactically correct but meaningless verbiage including commons search terms” (a sentence like “Indeed, a blind crenelation blasphemously a player inside the stictomys. For example, a whopper behind a ferrocyanide indicates that the saccharinity behind a casino tropez another euphausiacea from another modem.”) People also “Google bomb” (mass posting on blogs/lists associating a search phrase with online address). Some sites have in fact automated this by writing programs that automatically go to different blogs/lists and post entries/comments like “poker chips poker – [web address].” This problem is much worse as it is making it progressively harder for us to find “genuine” (or most popular/reliable) information.

So will there be too much seemingly reliable unreliable information or will we miss a lot of seemingly unreliable reliable information. Chances are that both will happen.

Friedman is Flat-Footed

13 Apr

Those who keep an eye on the Amazon.com’s bestsellers list would have already noticed that Friedman’s latest effort in punditry sits at number three on the charts. Friedman, the “mid-east scholar”, has of late sunk into crooning pithies about economics, especially globalization. He started his liaison with economics with “The Lexus and the Olive tree” and has now come with a book which rehashes all the old arguments without any extra zing – well except for the title which oozes hyperbolic charm.

The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century is a book that is thoroughly bankrupt of any new ideas. That’s not reason enough to stay away from it especially if you have been hibernating in Siberia for the past 15 or so years and have missed the entire debate on globalization. Let me step down from my “Dowdian” (pun intended) verbal gymnastics and go into the main course.

Well the book is about how globalization is increasingly leveling the playing field. It is part alarmist and part congratulatory of the phenomenon for globalization knifes through both ways – while it increases opportunity for the Bangalore geek, it simultaneously makes life more competitive for the kid in Brooklyn. Nothing new here especially for most of us who have been doing the quick step with our resume’ in the employment market without any audience. The book is full of alarmist statistics and can be read as a recipe for protectionism by even more clueless policy wonks.

What Friedman doesn’t quite explicate is that increase in tariffs, protectionism etc. were the cause of the first major market meltdown of a globalized marketplace – the great depression. Friedman also pays little attention to the fact that that world is still a, and will continue to be a very diverse place. In fact a truly “flat” world would mean that there would be no incentive for trade.

What Friedman does get correct or states partially correct is that Capitalism is headed towards a race to the bottom. Capitalists will move production from US to Mexico to China to India to Somalia to slave colonies… you get the idea.. to for not only cheap labor but to bypass environmental legislation, taxes, law itself or accountability. These are admittedly unhappy scenarios but then we here wrongly assume that capitalism is a system without breaks when in fact it may very well have a good breaking system.

So yeah, the final verdict is: read more. Friedman can get you started in the topic with a language as facile as his argument. But then go on and read Stiglitz, Bhagwati and Sachs for flat world is not enough!

Islamic Fundamentalism: Eponym or eristic imputation

8 Mar

The phrase “Islamic fundamentalism” is so frequently used by the tele-pundits that it has become virtually impossible to sever the word “fundamentalism” from Islam. Scholars have been more nuanced in choosing adjectives, often choosing euphemisms like “Clash of Civilizations” and “Political Islam” to describe, what they see as key attributes of Islam – intolerance, terrorism, oppression of women etc. These impugnations are by no means limited to the Lewises, the Huntingtons and the Friedmans, they are frequently declaimed by the ‘liberal’ faces of Islam, who often start any discussion on Islam with elaborate defensive apologies.

Based on ‘expert’ evidence, we have already declared the words Islam and fundamentalism man and wife. In the following paragraphs, I will try to analyze not only theories about the love affair between the words, but the legitimacy of consecrating such an alliance based on specious evidence.

Islamic fundamentalism has been explained via variety of theories ranging from poverty (poverty causes terrorism) to Islam’s role in freedom struggles in countries like Algeria and India (political Islam causes terrorism) to latent problems in the religion which became manifest as Islam went into decline.

Let us first analyze the first hypothesis that declaims poverty as a progenitor of terror. According to this theory, sub-Saharan Africa should be the leading exporter of terror – which it is not. Poverty clearly does play a part – especially in recruiting disenchanted young men from poor households with the proffered aim of eliminating the western imperialists, the root of their economic and social ruination. Poverty doesn’t explain the geopolitical motives that are at work in funding and training the poor and nor does it explain why college graduates or enrollees form nearly 80 percent of Egyptian Islamist groups.

Then comes the theory which argues that Islam, the religion, itself is the root cause of its decline. These ‘latent problems’ in Islam, according to Arab scholar Bernard Lewis, are due to the lack of separation between ‘Church’ and state in Islam. He follows up this argument with the case of Christianity which, since it developed under the Romans, always argued for a separation between Church and state (Romans) (– and hence is successful?). Obviously, Mr. Lewis chooses to ignore Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism – all of which had virtually no separation between church and state during their early development.

The latest fad has been to explain rise in Islamic Fundamentalism via ‘political Islam’ or politicization of Islam. While the phenomenon traces its history to the crusades, it is generally studied from independence movements onwards. The current iteration of ‘radicalization’ is generally explained via rise in Identity politics, similar to the rise of RSS of BJP in India and Rush Limbaugh in US, in face of cultural globalization. What peddlers of the theory, that draws a straight line between politicization and fundamentalism, forget is that politicization is not new. The entire civil rights movement in US, the overt moral logic of ‘colonialism’, all had roots in politicization of religion. Politicization doesn’t quite explain the rise in Islamic fundamentalism.

“Islam has taken a violent turn because it is suppressed, quarantined, persecuted – most directly by rulers of nations where Muslims live.” – Appleby

This view is supported by theorists who use Gramscian theory of hegemony to explain the rise of fundamentalist Islam. Thomas J. Butko, in an influential paper titled “Revolution or Revelation: A Gramscian approach to the rise of political Islam”, argues that the rise in Muslim fundamentalism should be seen as a localized response to ineffectual tyrannical governments. This theory is corroborated by the fact that leading proponents of democracy in countries like Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Egypt are all Islamic fundamentalists. What is more interesting to note here is that a lot of these so called Islamic fundamentalist organizations(including Al Qaeda) are not primarily religious organizations concerned with doctrine and faith but political organizations utilizing Islam as a ‘revolutionary’ ideology to “attack criticize, de-legitimize the ruling elites”. These organizations, argues Butko, are authentic counter-hegemonic movements focused on overthrowing these despotic regimes and acquiring political, economic and social power.

Let me weave one more theory ‘explaining’ the rise before I move on to the counter arguments. I argue that the rise in Muslim fundamentalism in some Muslim countries has much to do with the constitutions of those countries. Constitutions of the colonies are generally a bequeath from the colonial masters. (About 30 years ago most constitutions were copies of constitutions of their colonial masters or of “successful countries” like US). This has left countries with absolutely unsuitable constitutional structures (which govern the nature of government – consociational election models/rights/law) which breed resentment as they sometimes deliberately go about suppressing the religious identity of the populace. Examples would be Algeria, Indonesia, and Malaysia to a certain extent and of course Egypt, Morocco etc.

It is an oft asked question – Why is there only an Islamic terror network and no say a Hindu or a Buddhist global terror network? Answer, according to Columbia University professor Mahmood Mamdani, is straightforward – US spent $5 billion creating an Islamic terror network. If some other country had spent that much money on fostering a Hindu network of terror – we would have had one. (Except Hindus have one in LTTE)

Mamdani, in “Good Muslim, Bad Muslim”, mocks poorly thought contentions dichotomizing Muslims into jihadists and liberal. Mamdani persuasively argues in the book that the reason for growth of terrorism in general and Islamic terrorism in particular, is cold war. America and erstwhile USSR, both extensively used ‘low-intensity’ warfare to carry on a brutal war in a wide array of countries. This low-intensity warfare directly explains the savagery of numerous civil wars in Africa. Islam comes into picture with Afghanistan (even Algeria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Egypt) and US’s cynical exploitation of religious fundamentalism to win the Afghan war. He then goes on to argue how end of cold-war also marks the time when these ‘out of work’ mujahideen start looking for alternative avenues of funding either via Opium or as paid soldiers or as “jihadists”.

What has become abundantly clear is that none of these theories quite explain the sudden resurgence in Muslim consciousness. In fact, it begs the question- has there has been a rise in Muslim consciousness, or has it just been a rise in paranoia.

Some die young

26 Dec

There are 34 countries in Africa where life expectancy at birth of both men and women is equal to or less than 51.
Data are from the 2003 UN estimates.
Note that life expectancy at birth is strongly impacted by infant mortality.

Name of country Av. Age of Men  Av. Age of Women

Angola      39      41
Benin       48      51
Botswana    39      40
Burkina Faso    45      46
Burundi     40      41
Cameroon    45      47
Central African 38      40
Republic
Chad        44      46
Rep of Congo    47      50
DR Congo    41      43
Djibouti    45      47
Equatorial  48      50
Guinea
Ethiopia    45          46
Guinea      49      49
Guinea Bissau   44      47
Ivory Coast 41          41
Kenya       43          46
Lesotho     32          38
Liberia     41          42
Malawi      37          38
Mali        48          49
Mozambique  37      40
Namibia     43      46
Niger       46      46
Rwanda      39      40
Sierra Leone    33      35
Somalia     45      48
South Africa    45      51
Swaziland   33      35
Tanzania    42      44
Togo        48      51
Uganda      45      47
Zambia      33      32
Zimbabwe    34      33